After you read this, you perhaps will begin to agree with me that Darwinists are hiding evidence and hindering the advance of real science! As the article asserts:
"- decades wasted when research into the alleged vestigial organs was discouraged
- many years wasted when research into alleged Junk DNA was discouraged
- a century and a half of additional decomposition of fossil soft tissue that has forever been lost to science, all because of that same stifling evolutionary bias."
Scientific Journals: Nature, Science, PNAS, PLoS One, Proceedings of the Royal Society, the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, and others below in our chronological catalog of dinosaur soft tissue discoveries published in many leading journals.
Biological Material Found: As of May 2013, in fossils from dinosaur-layer and deeper strata, researchers have discovered flexible and transparent blood vessels, red blood cells, many various proteins including collagen and hemoglobin, and powerful evidence for DNA.
Dinosaur and Dinosaur-Layer Creatures: The dinosaurs and other Mesozoic creatures that have yielded their biological material are hadrosaur, titanosaur, ornithomimosaur [ostrich-like dinosaurs], mosasaur, triceratops, Lufengosaurs, T. rex, and Archaeopteryx.
"65-million" Year Old T. rex Soft Tissue: The T. rex
- the short-lived Carbon 14 everywhere including in dinosaur bones
- the mostly left-handed amino acids that should be equally right and left handed if they were "Jurassic", and
- the research on Egyptian mummies that established 10,000 years as an upper limit for how long original biological molecules could survive. Interestingly, the renowned evolutionist PZ Myers ridiculed our Real Science Radio program by repeating what had been a widely-discredited secular hope that the "soft-tissue" dinosaur finds were "biofilm" contamination from bacteria. But as 60 Minutes shows and Bob Enyart sums it up, "This is dinosaur."
1) have never even heard of these developments
2) initially deny them (soft-tissue deniers)
3) assume that it must be creationists who claim to have found them, and
4) repeat, as PZ Myers did when criticizing Real Science Radio, the repeatedly debunked claims that these are not dinosaur tissue but bacterial biofilm contamination.
Now, as cited below, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reports the discovery of various types of original biological material in archeopteryx feathers and bones that allegedly has survived for 150 million years.
and its stunning prequel, Evolution, the Grand Experiment!
- Carbon 14 in a Mosasaur Bone: The 2011 peer-reviewed PLoS One paper excerpted below reported significant 14C measured in an allegedly 80-million year old dinosaur-layer fossil. However, they interpreted it in a manner inconsistent with the primary finding of their paper, claiming that the 14C must be from contamination. This runs somewhat counter to their conclusion that the biological material in the small bone IS NOT from bacterial or other contamination. If the carbon 14 were from contamination, such a condition would make the claim of survival of allegedly 80-million year old biological material even more obviously impossible.
- 14C in 10 Dinosaurs Reported at 2012 AGU Conference: Real Science Radio interviewed a scientist returning from the American Geophysical Union's conference in Singapore where his international team presented results from five respected laboratories documenting significant quantities of Carbon 14 in bones from ten dinosaurs excavated from Alaska, Europe, Texas, Montana, and China's Gobi Desert. Radioactivity tests helped to discount neutron capture as a source for the modern carbon. And see also the reasons why contamination is not a valid explanation.
- Some Dino 14C from Contamination: The PLoS One 2008 study that had found bacterial biofilm carbon dated that specimen and found so much modern carbon, in excess of 1950 quantities, that it was rightly attributed to contamination.
- Mary Schweitzer 14C Rumor: A spring 2012 rumor has it that Mary Schweitzer has carbon dated soft tissue dinosaur specimens but has not released the results. Of course she may interpret the results as misleading or insignificant but let's hope and pray that she makes the data public.
* JANUARY & APRIL 2013 UPDATES: Historic DNA Discovery! Dr. Schweitzer has published her latest discovery in the journal Bone, documenting the presence of four proteins in dinosaur fossils and the presence of dinosaur DNA (see below and Dr. Jonathan Sarfati's analysis at creation.com). Also, Nature published the discovery of original biological material in the supposedly oldest dinosaurs yet (see below), allegedly 190 million year old sauropod embryos! And there's a preliminary report (look for a paper later this year) about the skin of, what else, a hadrosaur, from paleontologist Phill Bell working in Canada with physicist Mauricio Barbi, which not surprisingly may preserve original protein.
"Horner suspects the bones are thick enough to protect their internal cellular structure--and perhaps their genetic material--from water and oxygen..."But are the bones thick enough to protect such complex molecules from minor temperature variations and the randomizing effects of molecular motion?
1995 - Science: Detecting dinosaur DNA by Hedges, S. Blair, Dept. of Biology, Institute Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, Penn. State University; Schweitzer, Mary H., Montana State University.
"The fact that DNA sequence can be obtained from fossil organisms has opened new windows of opportunity for research… Recently, S. R. Woodward, et al. sequenced DNA from… bone fragments apparently from a dinosaur… However, the likely source of those DNA sequences appears to be human contamination. [However] support has been presented for other findings of DNA surviving for millions of years (10)…"
- The Proceedings of the Nat'l Academy of Sciences
- Medical Science Research
- Science, and
All these journals published reports claiming that recovered DNA segments have survived for millions of years (despite extensive previous evidence of its rapid deterioration). Fast forward then to the year 2013 and not only have dinosaurian still-soft original biological structures and proteins been confirmed by sequencing, immunological experiments, etc., but also, dinosaur DNA has now been identified!
1997 - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Preservation of Biomolecules in Cancellous Bone of Tyrannosaurus rex by Schweitzer, Horner [and three other authors from Los Alamos National Labs; and Montana State University].
"…analysis of extracts from the bone tissues revealed the presence of molecules with light absorbance maxima consistent with nucleic acids and peptides/proteins. Analyses of bone extracts for amino acid content yielded ratios similar to those found for modern ostrich and horse bone. … bony tissue samples from the T. rex suggests the presence of collagen type I remnants. … … bony tissue samples from the T. rex suggests the presence of collagen type I remnants. Results indicate that the analyzed tissue contains numerous biomolecules. While some of the biomolecules are most likely contaminants, the probable presence of collagen type I suggests that some molecules of dinosaurian origin remain in these tissues."
2003 - Journal of Applied Genetics: Molecular phylogenetics employing modern and ancient DNA by Pusch, Carsten M.; Broghammer, Martina; and Blin, Nikolaus.
"The field of molecular palaeobiology was initiated in 1954, when Abelson successfully recovered ancient amino acids from fish dating back from the Devonian period" [400 mya].
- decades wasted when research into the alleged vestigial organs was discouraged
- many years wasted when research into alleged Junk DNA was discouraged
- a century and a half of additional decomposition of fossil soft tissue that has forever been lost to science, all because of that same stifling evolutionary bias.
2005 - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences: Molecular preservation in Late Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur eggshells: by Schweitzer, et al. [including scientists from the Los Angeles Natural History Museum, London University, and the Journal of Immunology]
"Exceptionally preserved sauropod eggshells discovered in Upper Cretaceous… in… Argentina, contain skeletal remains and soft tissues of embryonic Titanosaurid dinosaurs. …mineralization may also have been rapid enough to retain fragments of original biomolecules in these specimens. To investigate preservation of biomolecular compounds in these well-preserved sauropod dinosaur eggshells, we applied multiple analytical techniques. Results demonstrate organic compounds and antigenic structures similar to those found in extant eggshells."
Traces of protein have survived for more than 70 million years in dinosaur eggs from Argentina. They bear strong similarities to proteins from chicken eggs. … The eggs were laid by massive long-necked plant-eaters called titanosaurs. Buried by floods, the eggs fossilised unusually fast, preserving the soft tissues and tiny bones within.
2005 - Science, Soft-tissue vessels and cellular preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex by Schweitzer, Horner, et al.
2005 - Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology: Manipulating dinosaurian soft tissue: methods for handling soft tissues, vessels and cells in fossil specimens by North Carolina State's Mary Schweitzer and Jennifer Wittmeyer.
"…soft tissues could be preserved in the fossil record, not just by replacement… but as intact structures retaining flexibility and resilience. …additional fossil material, including other tyrannosaurs [and] hadrosaurs… indicates that this is not an isolated phenomenon. The challenge of trying to manipulate, process and analyze vessels and cellular structures millions of years old is not a minor one. … We have tested a variety of methods for… extracting soft tissue and cellular structures… to characterize preservation at cellular and sub-cellular levels."
"Late Cretaceous avian bone tissues from Argentina demonstrate exceptional preservation… to the microstructural and molecular levels. Bone tissues respond to collagenase digestion and histochemical stains. …we have applied atomic force microscopy to address the integrity and functionality of retained organic structures. …measurements not only support immunochemical evidence for collagen preservation for antibody recognition but also imply preservation of the whole molecular integrity. … The conclusion that the fossil section is organic is further supported by ToFSIMS [ion mass spectroscopy] analysis (not show) and the collagenase digestion experiments… Imaging ToFSIMS shows an abundance of organic fragments…"
2007 - Science: Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry, J. Asara [of Beth Israel Med. Center, Boston and today at Harvard]; Schweitzer, Mary H.
"We used mass spectrometry to obtain protein sequences from bones of a… 68-million-year-old dinosaur (Tyrannosaurus rex). The presence of T. rex sequences indicates that their peptide bonds were remarkably stable."This paper generated much controversy, as colorfully reported by Wired, which concludes, "Asara and Schweitzer, in other words, have done just what the critics asked. They've built a rigorous scientific case for the survival of 68 million-year-old proteins from a beast that animates children's imaginations."
2007 – Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences: Soft tissue and cellular preservation in vertebrate skeletal elements from the Cretaceous to the present by Schweitzer, Wittmeyer, Horner.
"Soft tissues and cell-like microstructures derived from skeletal elements of a well-preserved Tyrannosaurus rex [include] transparent, hollow and pliable blood vessels; intravascular material, including in some cases, structures morphologically reminiscent of vertebrate red blood cells; and osteocytes with intracellular contents and flexible filipodia… in bone from specimens spanning multiple geological time periods [to 70+ mya] and varied depositional environments. … the surprising presence of still-soft elements in fossil bone… suggest that… soft tissue elements may be more commonly preserved… than previously thought."
These naturally-pigmented T. rex images depict tissue containing osteocytes and interconnected, flexible, transparent vessels similar to modern vessels.
And remembering that biomineralization is the process by which organisms produce minerals to harden tissue (such as an animal making calcium for bone), this same 2007 paper on dinosaurs pointed out that scientists had long considered the fossilization "of non-biomineralized tissues." But now scientists should try to:
"…explain the detailed preservation of still-soft, transparent, hollow and flexible tissues and cells over geological time, given that natural processes such as decay and degradation… and chemical and/or enzymatic degradation (Lindahl 1993; Riley & Collins 1994; Collins, et al. 2000, 2002) act in concert to rapidly degrade both the molecules and the tissues they comprise."And "structures observed in most fossil specimens are similar in morphology, size, location and content to erythrocytes [red blood cells] observed in related extant [still living] taxa [group of animals]."
The paper also describes the original biological material in "Sue," the largest and best preserved Tyrannosaurus rex ever found, now permanently exhibited in Chicago's Field Museum of Natural History. From Sue:
"Small regions of soft tissue were recovered," and "Osteocytes with long filipodia and distinct, well-defined 'nuclei' were restricted to pliable regions of matrix…"
"Hollow, transparent and flexible vessels [which] were slightly pigmented" and its "Osteocytes… had pigmented elongate cell bodies, some with internal contents and short, stubby filipodia."
Of the various dinosaur soft tissue types, the paper says:
"As arguably the most labile and easily degraded of the structures we observed, the presence of soft vessels is enigmatic. They are neither biomineralized nor have any obvious inherent characteristics that would favour preservation…"
"The possibility that microbes may have invaded bone and vascular channels after death, secreting extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that subsequently mineralized, was also considered. If deposition of mineral upon microbial biofilm allowed retention of flexibility in one case, it is feasible to propose that the same process contributed to the preservation of the original vessel walls."
Then a few months later the journal Science published a peer-reviewed paper from a team of scientists including from Harvard and the University of Chicago marking a significant development in the history of this breakthrough field. For this excerpt, remember that the word endogenous means originating within, of course, as opposed to an external contamination.
2007 - Science: Analyses of soft tissue from Tyrannosaurus rex suggest the presence of protein by Schweitzer [and six other authors from NCSU; MSU; Beth Israel Med. Ctr.; Harvard School of Med.; Univ. of Chicago].
"We performed multiple analyses of Tyrannosaurus rex (specimen MOR 1125) fibrous cortical and medullary [pregnancy-related bone] tissues remaining after demineralization. The results indicate that collagen I, the main organic component of bone, has been preserved in low concentrations in these tissues. The findings were independently confirmed by mass spectrometry. We propose a possible chemical pathway that may contribute to this preservation." And the team considers the implications of the "presence of endogenous protein in dinosaur bone…"
"…it has been hypothesized that original molecules will be either lost or altered to the point of nonrecognition over relatively short time spans (well under a million years) (1–7). However, the discovery of intact structures retaining original transparency, flexibility, and other characteristics in specimens dating at least to the Cretaceous (8, 9) [65+ mya] suggested that, under certain conditions, remnant organic constituents may persist across geological time." -Science 2007, Schweitzer, et al.
…collagen [type] I has unique characteristics… making validation of its presence relatively straightforward.
This finding suggests that the bone mineral is virtually unchanged from the living state and has undergone little if any alteration. … the elasticity of dinosaur tissues was similar to that of demineralized extant bone.
…bone extracts showed reactivity to antibodies raised against chicken collagen… We confirmed the antibody reactivity data by in situ immunohistochemistry…
Additionally, antibody reactivity (Fig. 2J) was significantly decreased after we digested dinosaur tissues with collagenase…
Immunohistochemistry performed on sediments was negative for binding.
In situ TOF-SIMS [ion mass spectroscopy] analyses were performed to unambiguously detect amino acid residues consistent with the presence of protein in demineralized MOR 1125 [T. rex] tissues.
Sandstones entombing the dinosaur, subjected to TOF-SIMS as a control, showed little or no evidence for these amino acids.
… that molecular fragments of original proteins are preserved in the mineralized matrix of bony elements of MOR 1125 is supported by peptide sequences recovered from dinosaur extracts, some of which align uniquely with chicken collagen… The amount of protein or protein-like components… was ~0.62% for cortical bone and 1.3% for medullary bone.
Additionally, experiments have been conducted independently in at least three different labs and by numerous investigators, and the results strongly support the endogeneity [internal origin] of collagen-like protein molecules. -Science 2007, Schweitzer, et al.
The presence of original molecular components is not predicted for fossils older than a million years…
-Science 2007, Schweitzer, et al.
2007 - Expert Reviews of Proteomics: Will current technologies enable dinosaur proteomics, by Gary B. Smejkal [then associate professor molecular biology, University of New Hampshire]; Schweitzer.
"The preservation of proteinaceous materials over millions of years has caused paleobiologists to reconsider current models of fossilization. … Conventional wisdom held that, under normal circumstances, decomposition occurs so rapidly and completely that, after a relatively short period of time, no molecular fragments (let alone cells or tissues) would remain. However, the observation of these components in multiple specimens of geological age, supported by amino acid sequence data from collagen preserved in the skeletal elements of T. rex, provide evidence for molecular preservation over millions of years."
Now to the popular anti-soft-tissue biofilm paper (which PZ Myers still thinks is the latest word on the topic). The authors examined fossils from 15 genera and found no original soft tissue but only bacterial biofilm contamination. Back in 2008 of course these authors were unaware of all later soft-tissue confirmations, but unreasonably even for then they glossed over the previously published immunological and protein sequence findings.
2008 – Public Library of Science - PLoS One: Dinosaurian Soft Tissues Interpreted as Bacterial Biofilms: by T. Kaye (of the Burke Museum of Natural History), et al.
"bacterial biofilms… mimic real blood vessels… This explanation... represents a plausible alternative hypothesis."
"discovery of soft, pliable tissues recovered from... Tyrannosaur [involve] preserved biomolecules [of] preserved dinosaurian soft tissues [which if true would hold] the promise of biologic investigations of extinct animals."
"The hollow [voids] of the tyrannosaur femur supported the general idea that an exceptionally well-preserved bone may act as a containment vessel for biomolecules. … To test this concept, a perfectly preserved turtle phalange [finger bone]... was pressure fractured and directly examined...."
For example, in the biofilm paper:
...demineralized specimens... displayed small red spheres clustered in the tubular structures (Fig. 4A). Discovery of these spheres in an ammonite [extinct mollusk] suture [a rigid joint] indicated they had no relationship to iron derived from blood. … The second structure category consisted of soft, pliable, branching tubules with morphology closely resembling blood vessels."
RSR's Bob Enyart Speaks with Jack Horner: Steven Spielberg had famed paleontologist Jack Horner on the set as a technical advisor during the filming of all three Jurassic Park blockbuster movies. This YouTube video presents the Real Science Radio phone call by which we offered Jack Horner a grant of $23,000 to carbon date either their Wankel T. rex (which exhibit, incidentally, has been moved from MSU's Museum of the Rockies to the Smithsonian) or their pregnant (at the time of its death) B. rex:
Recent discoveries [Genome-based identification… of collagen-related… motifs in bacterial… proteins] of collagen-like proteins in bacteria and viruses  add to the problem of unambiguous identification of vertebrate biomolecules."
2009 - Science: Biomolecular Characterization and Protein Sequences of the Campanian Hadrosaur B. canadensis by Schweitzer in a group of sixteen authors from North Carolina State, Harvard University, Montana State, Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Dana Farbar Cancer Institute, London's Matrix Science Ltd., Bozeman's Museum of the Rockies, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, and Harvard Medical School.
These authors report finding original biological tissue in the leg bone of a Hadrosaur, i.e., a duck-billed dinosaur:
"Microstructural and immunological data are consistent with preservation of multiple bone matrix and vessel proteins..."
"...phylogenetic analyses of Brachylophosaurus collagen sequenced by mass spectrometry robustly support the bird-dinosaur clade…"
2010 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Archaeopteryx feathers and bone chemistry fully revealed via synchrotron imaging by Bergmann, et al. [a non-Schweitzer group of eight authors from Stanford Nat'l Accelerator Laboratory, the Middle Waters Institute, University of Manchester, University of Pennsylvania, and the Black Hills Institute].
These authors report finding original biological material feathers in an Archaeopteryx fossil from the Solnhofen limestone, although only enough to make identification of the appropriate compounds at the appropriate parts of the animal's anatomy including skull, claws, feathers, feather shafts, postcranial skeleton, and teeth. They report:
"…striking and previously unknown details about the chemical preservation of soft tissue, elemental distribution patterns most likely related to the organism's life processes, insights into the chemistry of soft tissue, elemental distribution to the organism's life processes…
Most striking is that, in addition to the bone material, the chemical remains of the rachises (shafts) from the flight feathers are now revealed: The P [phosphorus] distribution is clearly controlled by both bone as well as soft tissue remnant from the original organism. Although phosphatized muscle tissue has been re-ported from the Solnhofen (21), the phosphorus and sulfur levels responsible for the rachis images presented here do not require the addition of P or S from elsewhere.
…iron zoning in the feathers... is probably NOT an original feature of the organism. [However] the evidence strongly implies that the rachises [feather shafts] are at least in part the chemical remains of the original organism.
…the high zinc levels in the Archaeopteryx bone have been inherited from the original organism.
…phosphorous point levels measured from the [feather shafts] ... strongly supporting the inference that part of the feather chemistry is preserved.
Zinc apparently was present in appreciable concentrations in the original bone (as in many extant organ-isms) and has been well sequestered within the bone over 150 million years of burial.
Other work (31) thus supports our most striking result: that elevated Zn levels associated with the skull and other bones have persisted over geological time and most likely, along with phosphorous and sulfur, are remnants of the original bone chemistry.
Ca [calcium] removal from some parts of the Archaeopteryx is negligible…
…feather barb patterns are not merely topographic impressions…"
2010 - PLoS One: Influence of microbial biofilms on the preservation of primary soft tissue in fossil and extant archosaurs by Peterson, et al. [a non-Schweitzer group of three authors from the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh and Northern Illinois University].
Preservation of GROSS soft tissues is extremely rare, but recent studies have suggested that primary soft tissues and biomolecules are more commonly preserved within preserved bones than had been presumed.
Some of these claims have been challenged... suggesting that some of the structures are microbial artifacts, not primary soft tissues.
The identification of biomolecules in fossil vertebrate extracts from a specimen of Brachylophosaurus canadensis [Hadrosaur] has shown the interpretation of preserved organic remains as microbial biofilm to be highly unlikely.
This study experimentally examines the role of microbial biofilms in soft-tissue preservation…
The identification of biomolecules with vertebrate signatures[2,3] in the extracts from fossil vertebrates provides compelling evidence countering the argument that these structures are simply microbial biofilm .
both primary soft tissue and microbial biofilms are composed of organic carbon, control samples and biofilm samples possess a similar EDS signature that is unreliable for differentiation. However, primary soft-tissues in control samples are morphologically different from biofilm samples. Primary soft- tissues analyzed by SEM show red blood cells and vessels at relatively low magnifications (<100x 6="" at="" biofilms="" bones="" font="" igure="" magnifications="" on="" shows="" similar="" smooth="" surfaces="" undulating="" whereas="">
Phosphatized soft-tissues in the basal ornithimimosaur [sic, bird-mimic ostrich-like dinosaurs], Pelecanimimus polydon, have also been described in the form of muscle and skin . The results of this study strongly suggest that microorganisms play a role in the preservation of primary soft- tissues in vertebrate organisms, without extensive secondary mineralization. … biofilms may directly enhance the preservation of vertebrate primary soft-tissues. ...exquisite preservation of pliable soft-tissues may be related to a microbial masonry process whereby the formation of microbial biofilms wall off internal surfaces of bones during early taphonomic stages.
The claim of the presence of primary soft-tissues in fossil vertebrates has been supported by the identification by mass spectroscopy of biomolecules in the form of collagen and [other] proteins...100x>
2011 - PLoS One: Microspectroscopic evidence of cretaceous bone proteins by Lindgren, et al. [a non-Schweitzer group of twelve authors from Lund University, Sweden; Southern Methodist University; and Midwestern University].
"…direct spectroscopic characterization of isolated fibrous bone tissues, a crucial test of hypotheses of biomolecular preservation over deep time, [previously] has not been performed. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous [originating from the mosasaur itself] proteinaceous [pertaining to protein, biological] molecules are retained in a humerus from a Late Cretaceous mosasaur (an extinct giant marine lizard). In situ immunofluorescence of demineralized bone extracts shows reactivity to antibodies raised against type I collagen, and amino acid analyses of soluble proteins extracted from the bone exhibit a composition indicative of structural proteins or their breakdown products. These data are corroborated by synchrotron radiation-based infrared microspectroscopic studies demonstrating that amino acid containing matter is located in bone matrix fibrils that express imprints of the characteristic 67 nm D-periodicity typical of collagen. Moreover, the fibrils differ significantly in spectral signature from those of potential modern bacterial contaminants, such as biofilms and collagen-like proteins. Thus, the preservation of primary soft tissues and biomolecules is not limited to large-sized bones buried in fluvial sandstone environments, but also occurs in relatively small-sized skeletal elements deposited in marine sediments.
...to facilitate comparisons with a relevant modern reference, bone tissue samples from an extant monitor lizard (LO 10298) were prepared in the same way as the mosasaur tissues.
…numerous free- floating, vessel-like structures [from the mosasaur] joined in a discrete network… similar to those previously reported in dinosaurs [6,10]. Associated with the vessel-like forms were cell-like features… and a fibrous substance that, in modern bone, would represent the organic phase of the extracellular matrix; i.e., the osteoid [organic bone material] (Figure 1G). The fibrous organization of the organic matter was demonstrated by optical and scanning electron microscopy (Figures 1A, B and H). Furthermore, application of a standard histochemical dye (Aniline blue) revealed that the fiber-like structures take up stain as does recent connective tissue (Figure 1L)…
Fiber-like forms with a similar typical axial periodicity were also found coiled obliquely around some canal walls (Figure 1K) and are, in modern animals, comprised primarily of mineralized fibrillar collagens (Figure 1J)… The amino acid profiles we obtained have a composition potentially indicative of fibrous structural proteins… such as collagen , suggesting that the proteinaceous molecules isolated from IRSNB 1624 [the mosasaur] may contain this protein…
Rationale for excluding fungal growth and animal glue as potential collagen sources: …histological sections of untreated bone revealed that the
fibrous microstructures were deeply embedded… and DNA analyses failed to detect any ergosterol or nucleic acids attributable to fungi…
…the amount of finite carbon was corresponding to 4.68% +/- 0.1 of modern 14C activity (yielding an age of 24 600 BP), and most likely reflect bacterial activity near the outer surface of the bone (although no bacterial proteins or hopanoids were detected, one bacterial DNA sequence was amplified by PCR…)"
"Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules…
Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions… Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril…
Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains…
This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms…
Type I collagen peptides were extracted and sequenced from ~68 million years old fossils of Tyrannosaurus rex... despite multiple lines of evidence to support the presence of collagen, including in situ antibody binding, the endogeneity of MOR 1125 peptides was disputed, and the sequences instead were suggested to arise from either microbial invasion , extant collagens introduced in laboratory experiments , or even statistical artifact . Collagen peptide sequences were subsequently derived from a second dinosaur, Brachylophosauraus canadensis (MOR 2598) , and included many of the earlier lines of supporting evidence as well as independent replication of data in multiple labs. Surprisingly, advances in collagen biology also support the authenticity of the fossil peptides. The molecular structure of collagen favors preservation.
Our results add to the evidence provided by sequence data…, molecular phylogenetic analyses…, microstructure… and immunoreactivity to anti-collagen antibodies… that supports persistence of elements of native collagen fibril structure…"
2011 - Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology: (abstract only, paper still unavailable as of Oct. 2012) DNA, Dinosaurs, and Metagenomics: A new tool for mass identification of DNA from fossil bone by Steven Salzberg, University of Maryland; Tom Kaye, Burke Museum; et al.
"The idea that endogenous soft tissues are preserved in Mesozoic fossil bone remains contentious after 6 years of research. Here, full characterization of DNA is reported using 'Metagenomics' techniques from a section of Brachylophosaurus canadensis [hadrosaur] fossil, JRF 56, from the Judith river formation near Malta, Montana. Soft tissue structures similar to those reported as dinosaurian blood vessels and bone cells are observed…
Previous studies have focused on long-lasting proteins since it is generally accepted that DNA can not survive such time scales. Here metagenomics data is presented that identifies ALL the DNA in the sample giving proportionate rank of endogenous molecular species.
The sample was processed to isolate organic remnants from the intravascular cavities of the fossil's cortical bone, excluding possible contamination from sediments on the bone surface. DNA from various species of bacteria, plants, fungi, and chordates was detected in the bone and therefore longer lasting proteins from these species can be expected. Critically, avian molecules identified as modern bird DNA were found in the organic isolates [including chicken apparently; and an allegation, reasonably leveled since Schweitzer used ostrich material as a control, that she contaminated her specimen with ostrich DNA and hemoglobin.].
Bacteria DNA provides support for the production of biofilms within the fossil…
The presence of modern bird and other chordate DNA provide a large analytical obstacle to identifying possible endogenous molecules.
2012 - Nature: New evidence on the colour and nature of the isolated Archaeopteryx feather by Carney, et al. [a non-Schweitzer group of five authors from Brown University, University of Texas, University of Akron, and from Carl Zeiss in Germany].
Even this paper on something as delicate as Archaeopteryx feathers disproves the somewhat bizarre claim made for years by many evolutionists in America and over in Britain as for example on the League of Reason website (regarding the AronRa/Bob Enyart Evolution vs. Creation Debate) that scientists have never even claimed to have discovered actual original biological material. In the following excerpts, of course a biomarker is an indicator of a biological state. And organocopper is a compound in organic chemistry. And within organic chemistry is the specialty of biomolecular chemistry that looks for biomarkers which are indicators of biological processes. Archaeopteryx had black melanin in its feathers (darker at the tips) as determined by the distribution and the dimensions of its melanosomes which were measured at only a quarter of a millionth of a meter (250 nanometers) wide.
"We interpret the feather's dark trace to be a melanic organosulphur residue, based on the following.
First, we detected no manganese among nine point analyses throughout the feather, indicating that preservation was not due to precipitation of the inorganic mineral, manganese dioxide (MnO2), as has been suggested…
Second, a potential organocopper biomarker for melanin was previously detected in this specimen; this biomarker has also been correlated with the presence of melanosomes in three fossil bird taxa. We hypothesize that melanosome structures fossilize simply by virtue of being solid aggregations of melanins… resistant to degradation.
Third, the dark trace is associated with sulphur, which may have derived from the sulphur-rich feather keratin and crosslinked with the melanin; this is consistent with the sulphurization mechanism responsible for high-fidelity organic preservation in the fossil record."
2013 - Nature: Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains by Reisz, et al. [a non-Schweitzer group of twelve authors from the Univ. of Toronto Mississauga, Ontario; Nat'l Universities in Taiwan: Central, Chung Hsing, and Cheng Kung; James Cook University, Queensland, Australia; Inst. of Vertebrate Paleontology, Beijing; Steinmann Inst. of Geology, Bonn, Germany; Nat'l Synchrotron Radiation Research Ctr, Taiwan; Lufeng & Chuxiong Prefectural Museums, Yunnan, China.].
NOW, Allegedly 190 Million Year Old Biological Material! An inherent prediction of evolution is that the "older" the dinosaur fossil, the less likely that biological material will survive (due to even minor temperature variations and the randomizing effects of molecular motion). Conversely, the Real Science Radio hosts, Bob Enyart and Fred Williams, presume that the alleged age of the dinosaur-layer (and lower) fossils will have little bearing on the existence and condition of endogenous dinosaur biological material. Thus we are happy to present to you a finding from Nature, made while studying 200 disarticulated bones, including rib fragments, scapulae, and skull elements, of sauropod Lufengosaurus embryos.
"In contrast to previous studies of organic residues based on extracts obtained by decalcifying [demineralizing] samples of bone, our approach targeted particular tissues in situ... This made it possible to detect the preservation of organic residues, probably direct products of the decay of complex proteins, within both the fast-growing embryonic bone tissue and the margins of the vascular spaces... This is indicated... by both infrared... and Raman spectroscopy...
Previous reports of preserved dinosaur organic compounds, or 'dinosaurian soft tissues' have been controversial because it was difficult to rule out bacterial biofilms or some other form of contamination as a possible source of the organics. Our results clearly indicate the presence of both apatite and amide peaks within woven embryonic bone tissue (Fig. 5a) [see above image], which should not be susceptible to microbial contamination or other post-mortem artefacts."
2013 - Bone: Molecular analyses of dinosaur osteocytes support the presence of endogenous molecules by Schweitzer [and three other authors from North Carolina State University, North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, and Palo Alto Research Center].
NOW, T. rex and hadrosaur DNA strongly indicated! After providing powerful evidence for the finding of dinosaur DNA, the authors needed to deal with the apparent contradiction of the inability of DNA to last for 80 million years. Creationists often note the circular reasoning of evolutionists who date the strata by the fossil, and the fossil by the strata. With the following excerpt from this paper, Mary's group perfectly illustrates the circular reasoning that created and maintains the evolutionary time frame.
"A recent paper by Allentoft et al. (2012) [Proc. Royal Soc. B] hypothesizes a half-life for DNA of ~521 years in an optimal depositional environment, suggesting that DNA should be degraded to single bases by a little under 7 million years, even though they also state that "considerable sample-to-sample variance in DNA preservation could not be accounted for by geologic age". Their half-life estimate was based upon extrapolations of data taken from >150 relatively recent Holocene bones (less than 10,000 years old). Fossils older than this were not examined for DNA. All of our assays require at least 4 or more bases to generate reactivity... Therefore we suggest more rigorous testing of extrapolation models on actual fossil material from older specimens."
- A text version of that ICR list with links and updates tiny.cc/ICRs-soft-tissue-list
- An electron microscope lab director brings dino tissue to RSR studio
- Mark Armitage's 2001 CRSQ scanning electron microscope study of T. rex collagen
- The iDINO project from the Creation Research Society lab and electron microscope
- Original dinosaur soft tissue, etc., will be found largely independent of the claimed age of the fossil.
- For now, dinosaur soft tissue will be found not only in rare circumstances, but rather easily, i.e., when looked for.
- Biological material will be found independent not only of alleged age (whether tens of thousands or hundreds of millions of years old), but also significantly independent of the specimen's environment, that is, whether preserved by mummification or encased in amber, ice, sandstone, marine sediments, etc.
- Evolutionists presuming that dino soft tissue lasts indefinitely will be surprised to find it decreasingly discoverable in the 2020s, 2030s, 2040s, etc.
- An awareness will set in that just as evolutionary assumptions led to the lost decades of dismissing function for a majority of our genome, and for dismissing exploration of function in vestigial organs, and for other irreparable scientific loss, also, a century of lost opportunity has passed during which vast quantities of otherwise discoverable biological material has disappeared forever, all because Darwinism led scientists to believe it was ridiculous even to look for it (just as they now claim it is ridiculous to carbon date diamonds, etc.).
- Even endogenous dinosaur soft tissue will have 14C (whenever tested for), arguing strongly against contamination.
- Unracemized (i.e., mostly left-handed) amino acids will be found extensively (whenever tested for) in dino tissue.
- The exact same specimens will be claimed to be both contaminated and uncontaminated. Where amino acid and radiocarbon testing is done on soft tissue, evolutionists will claim that (allegedly old) uncontaminated soft tissue is simultaneously contaminated by (short-lived) Carbon 14 and left-handed amino acids. The lack of contamination that enables the identification of original tissue is confirmed (by genetic sequencing, immunological tests, etc.) whereas the (allegation of) contamination of short-lived radiocarbon and non-racemized acids is usually not confirmed but only assumed. Evolutionists are thereby alleging that complex biological molecules endure not only with the randomizing effects of molecular motion, changes in temperature, etc., for 68M, 80M, 150M, 190M, 350M years, and more, but also multiple processes of contamination which (allegedly) include the introduction of left-handed amino acids and modern carbon.
- Seven fossil layers of school of jellyfish
- Honeybees that still communicate,
- Allegedly 150 Million Year Old Squid Ink
- mtEve and Y-chromosomal Adam surprised evolutionists
- Genome history of man, kangaroos, worms, chimps, and sponges undermine Darwinism
- Earth's magnetic field decaying exponentially
- Deposits can harden into marble or sandstone rapidly
- 100 million years of strata MISSING from the Grand Canyon layers!
- allegedly 17 million year old magnolia leaf contains DNA (Scientific American 1993)
- allegedly 18 million year old salamander muscle and vessels filled with blood (Proc. Roy. Soc. 2009)
- allegedly 40 million year old bee fossil contains LIVING bacteria (Science 1995)
- allegedly 120 million year old insect fossil contains DNA (Nature 1993)
- allegedly 200 million year old fish fossil contains DNA (Science. News 1992)
- allegedly 400 million year old fish amino acids (Journal of Applied Genetics 2003).
- allegedly 600 million year old rock contains LIVING bacillus (Nature 2000).